Leigland, S. (1998). Current Status and Future Directions of the Analysis of Verbal Behavior - The Methodological Challenge of the Functional Analysis of Verbal Behavior The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 15(1),125-127. doi:10.1007/BF03392933
[Citing Place (1991a)]  [Citing Place (1997d)]  
Citing Place (1991a) in context (citations start with an asterisk *):
* In the early years of the experimental analysis of behavior, the distinguishing methodological characteristics may be described in the following way: There was an emphasis upon the intact, freely moving individual organism in a controlled experimental setting, in which behavior was recorded directly in real time, and where records of such behavior in conjunction with manipulated events in the experimental space were available for the discrimination of controlling relations, and so on. Originally many of the experiments examined moment-to-moment dynamics of such interactions, although in later years the emphasis shifted to experiments employing steady-state behavior and well-established baselines (e.g., Galbicka, 1997). Part of the challenge of verbal behavior is that the exceedingly sensitive and dynamic character of verbal interactions (e.g., Skinner, 1957) probably renders the dominant behavior-analytic tradition of steady-state research methods relatively ineffective. In those areas of verbal interactions where steady states and the collection of well-established baselines may be appropriate, the concept of a baseline may be in need of reexamination (e.g., Day, 1992; Leigland, 1996a; Place, 1991, 1997).
The range of challenges might be illustrated by summarizing some of the areas of verbal behavior research in which further methodological innovation and extension would be most useful (although the following list is certainly not exhaustive). First, the most active single area of research of relevance to verbal interactions as a "symbolic" functional activity is the field of stimulus equivalence or derived relational phenomena (e.g., Hayes, 1994; Sidman, 1994). Two methodological challenges present themselves in that (a) the need to extend the experimental preparations beyond the standard arbitrary matching-to-sample procedures is now widely recognized, and (b) methods are needed to clarify the relations between derived relational phenomena and the larger domain of verbal behavior as it occurs outside the laboratory, that is, an extension that is empirical rather than merely theoretical (e.g., Leigland, 1997). Second, further methodological development is needed in the functional analysis of real-time verbal interactions (e.g., Leigland, 1989b, 1996a; Place, 1991, 1997; Rosenfarb, 1992; Skinner, 1957). Third, the temporal extensiveness of verbal influence presents a variety of problems that may require new empirical, if not experimental, methods, as seen in Moerk's (e.g., 1992) detailed and revealing reanalysis of Brown's (1973) data on language development. Fourth, experimental and other empirical methods are needed in the analysis of extant verbal contingencies and practices, as in the functional analysis of verbal practices relevant to such traditionally important cultural themes as "mind" and the "mental," the class of terms historically associated with "metaphysics," and so on (e.g., Leigland, 1989a, 1996b; Skinner, 1945).
Citing Place (1997d) in context (citations start with an asterisk *):
see citations of Place (1991a)