References of Place (1983b). Behavioural contingency semantics [Conference presentation abstract].
Carnap R. (1942). Introduction to Semantics. Harvard University Press.
[1 referring publications by Place]
Chomsky, N. (1957). Syntactic structures. Mouton.
[10 referring publications by Place]
Chomsky, N. (1959). Review of B. F. Skinner's Verbal Behavior. Language, 35, 26-58.
[19 referring publications by Place]
Chomsky, N. (1968). Language and Mind. Harcourt, Brace and World.
[3 referring publications by Place]
Fodor, J. (1975). The language of thought. Crowell.
[13 referring publications by Place]
Harzem, P. & Miles, T. R. (1978). Conceptual issues in operant psychology Wiley.
[15 referring publications by Place]
Morris, C. W. (1938). Foundations of the theory of signs. International Encyclopedia of Unified Science, Vol. I, no. 2 (pp. 78-137). University of Chicago Press.
[3 referring publications by Place]
Place, U. T. (1981a). Skinner's Verbal Behavior I - why we need it. Behaviorism, 9, 1-24. www.jstor.org/stable/27758970
To explain behaviour in terms of intensional or mentalistic concepts is to explain the behaviour in question on the assumption of a consistent and rational connection between what the agent does and what he says or what is said to him and that therefore any general account of verbal or linguistic behaviour which employs such concepts is necessarily circular, since it explains the acquisition of linguistic skills on the assumption that the speaker already possesses such skills. It follows that this circularity can only be avoided by developing a theory of verbal or linguistic behaviour which is stated entirely in a nonintensional or extensional language. At the present time, the most developed conceptual system for description and explanation of the behaviour of organisms at the molar level in purely extensional terms is that provided by the so-called ‘Radical Behaviorism’ of B. F. Skinner and his followers. Furthermore, in his book Verbal Behavior Skinner (1957) has used this conceptual framework to develop a theory of verbal or linguistic behaviour which represents the most ambitious attempt made so far to formulate a theory of linguistic behaviour in nonintensional or extensional terms.
Revised version is from 1999.
[References]  [Is cited by]  [7 referring publications by Place]
Download: 1981a 1999 Skinner's Verbal Behavior I - Why We Need It - revised version.pdf
Place, U. T. (1981b). Skinner's Verbal Behavior II - what is wrong with it. Behaviorism, 9, 131-152.
Skinner's Verbal Behavior as it stands suffers from four major defects. (1) Skinner fails to do justice to the distinction between words which are the repeated and repeatable units of verbal behaviour, but which have a function only in so far as they contribute to the function of the sentences in which they occur, and the sentences themselves which are the functional units of verbal behaviour, but which are seldom repeated word for word either in the mouth of the speaker or in the hearing of the listener. (2) The account given by Skinner of the listener's response to the verbal operant and of the concept of "the discriminative stimulus" which he deploys in this connection is seriously inadequate. (3) Skinner's concept of "the tact" involves a confusion between tacts as words and tacts as sentences. Tacts as words, i.e. names and general terms, designate recurrent features of the common stimulus environment of speaker and listener, both general and particular and contrast with autoclitic words whose function is purely intra-sentential. Tacts as sentences on the other hand are functionally complete verbal operants corresponding to the grammatical concept of an assertion, which act for the benefit of the listener and contrast with mands, sentence utterances corresponding to the imperatives and interrogatives of grammar and logic, which typically act for the benefit of the speaker. (4) Skinner's account fails to do justice to the all-important logical distinction between those tact sentence utterances or assertions which are true and on which the listener can consequently rely and those which are false and therefore unreliable as a source of information from the standpoint of the listener.
[References]  [Is cited by]  [7 referring publications by Place]  [Is replied by]
Download: 1981b Skinner’s Verbal Behavior II – what is wrong with it.pdf
Place, U. T. (1982). Skinner's Verbal Behavior III - how to improve Parts I and II. Behaviorism, 10, 117-136. www.jstor.org/stable/27759002
[References]  [Is cited by]  [2 referring publications by Place]
Download: 1982 Skinner's Verbal Behavior III - How to Improve Parts I and II
Skinner, B. F. (1957). Verbal behavior. Appleton-Century-Crofts.
[29 referring publications by Place]
Skinner, B. F. (1969). Contingencies of reinforcement. Appleton-Century-Crofts.
[20 referring publications by Place]
Thorndike, E. L. (1911). Animal intelligence Macmillan.
[8 referring publications by Place]
Wittgenstein, L. (1921/1971). Tractatus logico-philosophicus. Annalen der Naturphilosophie. Tractatus Logico-philosophicus. With second English translation by D. F. Pears & B. F. McGuiness. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
[17 referring publications by Place]