References of Place (1988h). Pre-linguistic and post-linguistic concepts. [Presentation to the Generalisation Group, Department of Psychology, University College of North Wales, Bangor at 10 March 1988 and to the Department of Psychology, Trinity College, Dublin at 11 March 1988.]

Barwise, J., & Perry, J. (1983). Situations and attitudes. MIT Press.
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Berlyne, D. E. (1960). Conflict, Arousal and Curiosity. McGraw-Hill.
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Broadbent, D. E. (1958). Perception and Communication. Pergamon.
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Broadbent, D. E. (1971). Decision and Stress. Academic Press.
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Cameron, N. (1938). Reasoning, regression and communication in schizophrenics. Psychological Monographs, 50(1), 1-34.
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Cowey, A., & Stoerig, P. (1995). Blindsight in monkeys. Nature, 373(6511), 247-249.
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Cowey, A., & Stoerig, P. (1997). Visual detection in monkeys with blindsight. Neuropsychologia, 35, 929-939.
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Dugdale, N., & Lowe, C.F. (1990). Naming and stimulus equivalence. In D. E. Blackman, & H. Lejeune (Eds.), Behaviour analysis in theory and practice: Contributions and controversies (pp. 115-138). Erlbaum.
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Frege, G. (1879). Begriffschrift (English translation by P. T. Geach. In P. T. Geach & M. Black (Eds.) (1960), Translations from the Philosophical Writings of Gottlob Frege, 2nd. Ed. Blackwell).
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Frege, G. (1891). Function and concept. Jenaischer Gesellschaft für Medicin und Naturwissenschaft (English translation by P. T. Geach. In P. T. Geach & M. Black (Eds.) (1960), Translations from the Philosophical Writings of Gottlob Frege (2nd. Ed.). Blackwell.)
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Geach, P. T. (1957) Mental Acts. Routledge and Kegan Paul.
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Goldstein, K., & Scheerer, M. (1941). Abstract and concrete behavior: An experimental study with special tests. Psychological Monographs, 53(2).
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Horne, P. J., & Lowe, C. F. (1996). On the origins of naming and other symbolic behavior. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 65, 185-241. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1350072/pdf/jeabehav00215-0185.pdf
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Hull, C. L. (1920). Quantitative aspects of the evolution of concepts. Psychological Monographs, 28(123).
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Hull, C. L. (1943). Principles of Behavior. Appleton Century.
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Humphrey, N. K. (1974). Vision in a monkey without striate cortex: a case study. Perception, 3, 241-255.
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Kant, I. (1781/1787). Kritik der reinen Vernunft (First edition 1781, second edition 1787, English translation as The critique of pure reason). Hartknoch
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Kimble, G.A., & Garmezy, N. (1963). Principles of general psychology Ronald.
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Lashley, K. S. (1929). Brain Mechanisms and Intelligence. University of Chicago Press.
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Locke, J. (1690). An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. Bassett.
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Lovibond, S. H. (1954). The object sorting test and conceptual thinking in schizophrenia. Australian Journal of Psychology, 6, 52-70.
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Pavlov, I. P. (1927). Conditioned Reflexes: An Investigation of the Physiological Activity of the Cerebral Cortex (English translation by G. V. Anrep). Oxford University Press.
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Piaget, J. (1923). Le langage et la pensée chez l'enfant (Many editions. Translated as The Language and Thought of the Child. Routledge & Kegan Paul.). Delachaux et Niestlé.
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Place, U. T. (1985d). Three senses of the word "tact". Behaviorism, 13, 63-74. www.jstor.org/stable/27759058
[References]  [2 citing publications]  [14 referring publications by Place]  [Is replied by]  
Download: 1985d Three Senses of the Word 'Tact'.pdf  1985d Supplement to Three Senses of the Word 'Tact'.pdf complete table with all occurrences of the word 'tact' in Skinner's Verbal Behavior

Place, U. T. (1995/6). Symbolic processes and stimulus equivalence. Behavior and Philosophy, 23/24, 13-30. www.jstor.org/stable/27759337
[Abstract]A symbol is defined as a species of sign. The concept of a sign coincides with Skinner's (1938) concept of a discriminative stimulus. Symbols differ from other signs in five respects: (1) They are stimuli which the organism can both respond to and produce, either as a self-directed stimulus (as in thinking) or as a stimulus for another individual with a predictably similar response from the recipient in each case. (2) they act as discriminative stimuli for the same kind of object for all members of the verbal community within which they function as symbols; (3) they acquire their properties by virtue of arbitrary social convention rather than any natural and intrinsic connection between the sign and what it is a sign of; (4) competent members of the verbal community can both produce the appropriate symbol in response to a naturally occurring sign of the presence of the object or a sample of the kind of object which the symbol stands for and select the appropriate object when presented with the symbol; (5) they form stimulus equivalence classes of the kind demonstrated in the matching-to-sample task (Sidman, 1971; Sidman and Tailby, 1982) both with other symbols having the same meaning and, more important, with the naturally-occurring non-symbolic signs of the presence of the object or kind of object which the symbol stands for.
[References]  [Talks]  [13 citing publications]  [4 referring publications by Place]  
Download: 1995-6 Symbolic Processes and Stimulus Equivalence.pdf

Place, U. T. (2000a). Consciousness and the zombie-within: a functional analysis of the blindsight evidence. In Y. Rossetti, & A. Revonsuo (Eds.), Beyond dissociations: Interaction between dissociated implicit and explicit processing (pp. 295-329). John Benjamins. doi:10.1075/aicr.22.15pla
[Abstract]Cowey & Stoerig's (1995) demonstration that the phenomenon of blindsight applies to monkeys with striate cortical lesions in the same way as it does to humans with similar lesions makes it plausible to argue that the behaviour of mammals and probably that of other vertebrates is controlled by two distinct but closely interdependent and interacting systems in the brain which I shall refer to respectively as 'consciousness' and the 'sub-conscious automatic pilot or "zombie" within'. On this hypothesis, consciousness has three functions, (a) that of categorizing any input that is problematic in that it is either unexpected or significant relative to the individual's current or perennial motivational concerns, (b) that of selecting a response appropriate both to the presence of a thing of that kind and to the individual's motivational concerns with respect to it, and (c) that of monitoring the execution of that response. Conscious/phenomenal experience, on this view, is the first stage in the process whereby problematic inputs are processed by consciousness. Its function is to modify the figure-ground relations within the central representation of a problematic input until an adequate categorization is selected. The sub-conscious automatic pilot or “zombie-within” has two functions (a) that of continuously scanning the total current input and alerting consciousness to any input it identifies as problematic, (b) that of protecting consciousness from overload either by ignoring those non-problematic inputs which require no response or by responding appropriately but automatically to those for which there already exists a well practised skill or other “instinctive” response pattern.
Keywords: consciousness
[References]  [Talks]  [5 citing publications]  [5 referring publications by Place]  [1 reprinting collections]  
Download: 2000a Consciousness and the Zombie-within a Functional Analysis of the Blindsight Evidence.pdf

Ryle, G. (1949). The Concept of Mind. Hutchinson.
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Sidman, M. (1971). Reading and audio-visual equivalences. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 14, 5-13.
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Skinner, B. F. (1938). The behavior of organisms: An experimental analysis of behavior. Appleton-Century-Crofts.
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Skinner, B. F. (1957). Verbal  behavior. Appleton-Century-Crofts.
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Smoke, K. L. (1932). An objective study of concept formation. Psychological Monographs, 42, No. 191.
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Weiskrantz, L. (1986). Blindsight: A Case Study and Implications Clarendon Press.
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Wittgenstein, L. (1921/1971). Tractatus logico-philosophicus. Annalen der NaturphilosophieTractatus Logico-philosophicus. With second English translation by D. F. Pears & B. F. McGuiness. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
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Wittgenstein, L. (1958). The Blue and Brown Books Blackwell.
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Wolters, A. W. (1933). On conceptual thinking. British Journal of Psychology, 24, 133-143.
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