References of Place (1992j). Towards a reconciliation between the associationist and radical behaviorist traditions in the experimental analysis of behavior. [Unpublished paper. Presented under the title 'The three term contingency as a link between the associationist and radical behaviorist traditions in the experimental analysis of behavior' as Invited Address to the First International Congress on Behaviorism and the Sciences of Behavior, Guadalajara, Mexico, 6th October 1992].

Adams, C. D., & Dickinson, A. (1981). Instrumental responding following Reinforcer Devaluation. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section B, 33(2b), 109-112. doi:10.1080/14640748108400816
[Abstract]In two experiments, hungry rats were given instrumental lever-press training for an appetitive reinforcer and, in addition, were exposed to another type of food which was not contingent on lever pressing. In the first experiment, exposure to each type of food was on separate days, whereas in the second experiment rats were exposed to each type of food in strict alternation within each session. Subsequently, a food aversion was conditioned to the reinforcer for the experimental group and to the non-contingent food for the control group. In both experiments, animals with an aversion to the reinforcer responded less in an extinction test than animals with an aversion to the non-contingent food. Subsequent reacquisition tests confirmed that the aversion to the non-contingent food in the control group was of comparable strength with that to the reinforcer in the experimental group. The results were discussed in terms of whether the reinforcer is encoded in the associative structure set up by exposure to an instrumental contingency.
[6 referring publications by Place]  

Brentano, F. (1874). Psychologie vom empirischen Standpunkt. Duncker & Humblot.
[19 referring publications by Place]  

Brogden, W. J. (1939). Sensory preconditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 25, 323-332
[1 referring publications by Place]  

Brown, P. L., & Jenkins, H. M. (1968). Auto-shaping of the pigeon's key-peck. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 11, 1-8.
[1 referring publications by Place]  

Chase, S. (1968). Selectivity in multidimensional stimulus control. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 66, 787-792.
[1 referring publications by Place]  

Chisholm, R. (1957). Perceiving: a Philosophical Study. Cornell University Press.
[9 referring publications by Place]  

Dennett, D. C. (1978). Brainstorms: Philosophical essays on the mind and psychology. Bradford.
[11 referring publications by Place]  

Dickinson, A. (1988). Intentionality in animal conditioning. In L. Weiskrantz (Ed.), Thought without Language. Oxford University Press.
[2 referring publications by Place]  

Dickinson, A., & Balleine, B. (1993). Actions and responses: The dual psychology of behaviour. In N. Eilan, R. A. McCarthy, & B. Brewer (Eds.), Spatial representation: Problems in philosophy and psychology (pp. 277–293). Blackwell Publishing.
[1 referring publications by Place]  

Edelman, G. M. (1987). Neural darwinism: The theory of neuronal group selection Basic Books.
[7 referring publications by Place]  

Festinger, L. (1957) A theory of cognitive dissonance Stanford University Press.
[7 referring publications by Place]  

Fodor, J. (1975). The language of thought. Crowell.
[22 referring publications by Place]  

Freeman, F., & Thomas, D. R. (1967). Attention vs. cue utilization in generalization testing. [Paper presented at Midwestern Psychological Association, Chicago.]
[1 referring publications by Place]  

Heyes, C., & Dickinson, A. (1990). The intentionalty of animal action. Mind and Language, 5, 87-104.
[1 referring publications by Place]  

Hilgard, E. R., & Marquis, D.G. (1940), Conditioning and Learning. Appleton-Century-Crofts.
[1 referring publications by Place]  

Kneale, W. (1968). Intentionality and intensionality. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Supplementary Volume 42, 73-90.
[9 referring publications by Place]  

MacPhail, E. M., & Reilly, S. (1989). Rapid acquisition of a novelty versus familiarity concept by pigeons (Columba livia). Journal of Experimental Psychology (Animal Behaviour Processes), 15, 242-252.
[1 referring publications by Place]  

Morgan, C. Lloyd (1894). Introduction to Comparative Psychology Scott.
[4 referring publications by Place]  

Pavlov, I. P. (1927). Conditioned Reflexes: An Investigation of the Physiological Activity of the Cerebral Cortex (English translation by G. V. Anrep). Oxford University Press.
[12 referring publications by Place]  

Place, U. T. (1954). The concept of heed. British Journal of Psychology, 45, 243-55. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8295.1954.tb01252.x
[References]  [21 citing publications]  [29 referring publications by Place]  [2 reprinting collections]  
Download: 1954 The Concept of Heed.pdf  1954 1999 The Concept of Heed - revised version.pdf (with a new introduction; not published)

Place, U. T. (1985a). A response to Sundberg and Michael. VB News, 3, 38-45. [Reprinted in The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 3, 41-47]
[References]  [Is reply to]  [1 citing publications]  [5 referring publications by Place]  
Download: 1985a A Response to Sundberg and Michael.pdf

Place, U. T. (1992c). Eliminative connectionism and its implications for a return to an empiricist/behaviorist linguistics. Behavior and Philosophy, 20, 21-35.
[Abstract]For the past three decades linguistic theory has been based on the assumption that sentences are interpreted and constructed by the brain by means of computational processes analogous to those of a serial-digital computer. The recent interest in devices based on the neural network or parallel distributed processor (PDP) principle raises the possibility ("eliminative connectionism") that such devices may ultimately replace the S-D computer as the model for the interpretation and generation of language by the brain. An analysis of the differences between the two models suggests that that the effect of such a development would be to steer linguistic theory towards a return to the empiricism and behaviorism which prevailed before it was driven by Chomsky towards nativism and mentalism. Linguists, however, will not be persuaded to return to such a theory unless and until it can deal with the phenomenon of novel sentence construction as effectively as its nativist/mentalist rival.
[References]  [Talks]  [1 citing publications]  [8 referring publications by Place]  
Download: 1992c Eliminative Connectionsm -Its Implications for a Return to an Empiricist-Behaviorist Linguistics.pdf

Place, U. T. (1992k). Selectionism, connectionism and the re-socialization of linguistics. [Unpublished paper. Presented in absentia under the title 'Selectionism and connectionism: Their implications for a return to an empirical/behavioristic linguistics' at the 1992 Conference of the Research Committee for Sociolinguistics of the International Sociological Association on 'The interface between Sociology and Linguistics', Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen, 9th-11th June 1992].
Last change to the text of the presentation made by UTP is from 1999.
[Talks]  [1 referring publications by Place]  

Place, U. T. (1996g). Intentionality as the mark of the dispositional. Dialectica, 50, 91-120. doi:10.1111/j.1746-8361.1996.tb00001.x
[Abstract]Martin and Pfeifer (1986) have claimed "that the most typical characterizations of intentionality . . . all fail to distinguish . . . mental states from . . . dispositional physical states." The evidence they present in support of this thesis is examined in the light of the possibility that what it shows is that intentionality is the mark, not of the mental, but of the dispositional. Of the five marks of intentionality they discuss a critical examination shows that three of them, Brentano's (1874) inexistence of the intentional object, Searle's (1983) directedness and Anscombe's (1965) indeterminacy, are features which distinguish T-intenTional/dispositional states, both mental and non-mental (physical), from non-dispositional "categorical" states. The other two are either, as in the case of Chisholm's (1957) permissible falsity of a propositional attitude ascription, a feature of linguistic utterances too restricted in its scope to be of interest, or, as in the case of Frege's (1892) indirect reference/Quine's (1953) referential opacity, evidence that the S-intenSional locution is a quotation either of what someone has said in the past or might be expected to say, if the question were to arise at some time in the future.
[References]  [Is reply to]  [Talks]  [38 citing publications]  [10 referring publications by Place]  [Is replied by]  
Download: 1996g Intentionality as the Mark of the Dispositional.pdf

Rescorla, R. A. (1991). Associative relations in instrumental learning: The eighteenth Bartlett Memorial Lecture. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 43B, 1-23.
[5 referring publications by Place]  

Rescorla, R. A., & Wagner, A. R. (1972). A theory of Pavlovian conditioning: Variations in the effectiveness of reinforcement and non-reinforcement. In A. H. Black, & W. F. Prokasy (Eds.), Classical Conditioning, Vol. 2: Current Research and Theory. Prentice-Hall.
[7 referring publications by Place]  

Ryle, G. (1949). The Concept of Mind. Hutchinson.
[83 referring publications by Place]  

Searle, J. R. (1979). What is an Intentional State? Mind, LXXXVIII, 74-92.
[5 referring publications by Place]  

Searle, J. R. (1983). Intentionality: an essay on the philosophy of mind. Cambridge University Press.
[10 referring publications by Place]  

Skinner, B. F. (1957). Verbal  behavior. Appleton-Century-Crofts.
[43 referring publications by Place]  

Skinner, B. F. (1966). An operant analysis of problem solving. In B. Kleinmuntz (Ed.) Problem Solving: Research, Method and Theory, Wiley. Reprinted as Chapter 6 of Skinner, B.F. (1969). Contingencies of Reinforcement: A Theoretical Analysis. Appleton-Century-Crofts. Reprinted as Skinner, B. F. (1984). An operant analysis of problem solving. Behavioral and brain sciences7(4), 583-591. Reprinted with peer comments and a reply in A. C. Catania & S. Harnad (Eds.), The selection of behavior. The operant behaviorism of B. F. Skinner: Comments and consequences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 218-236.
[Abstract]Behavior that solves a problem is distinguished by the fact that it changes another part of the solver's behavior and is strengthened when it does so. Problem solving typically involves the construction of discriminative stimuli. Verbal responses produce especially useful stimuli, because they affect other people. As a culture formulates maxims, laws, grammar, and science, its members behave more effectively without direct or prolonged contact with the contingencies thus formulated. The culture solves problems for its members, and does so by transmitting the verbal discriminative stimuli called rules. Induction, deduction, and the construction of models are ways of producing rules. Behavior that solves a problem may result from direct shaping by contingencies or from rules constructed either by the problem solver or by others. Because different controlling variables are involved, contingency-shaped behavior is never exactly like rule-governed behavior. The distinction must take account of (1) a system which establishes certain contingencies of reinforcement, such as some part of the natural environment, a piece of equipment, or a verbal community; (2) the behavior shaped and maintained by these contingencies; (3) rules, derived from the contingencies, which specify discriminative stimuli, responses, and consequences, and (4) the behavior occasioned by the rules.
[23 referring publications by Place]  

Skinner, B. F. (1989). The behavior of the listener. In S. C. Hayes (Ed.), Rulegoverned behavior: Cognition, contingencies and instructional control (pp. 85-96). Plenum.
[5 referring publications by Place]  

Tolman, E. C. and Honzik, C. H. (1930), Introduction and removal of reward, and maze performance in rats. <em>University of California Publications in Psychology</em>, <em>4</em>, 257-275.
[1 referring publications by Place]  

Wilkes, K. V. (1984) Is consciousness important? British Journal of the Philosophy of Science. 35,  223-243. British Journal of the Philosophy of Science. 35,  223-243.
[2 referring publications by Place]  

Wittgenstein, L. (1953). Philosophical Investigations (English translation by G. E. M. Anscombe). Basil Blackwell.
[55 referring publications by Place]  

Wittgenstein, L. (1958). The Blue and Brown Books Blackwell.
[16 referring publications by Place]